2024 JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Free Key Points

JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Free Key Points

The JAMB Syllabus for Biology is structured to prepare candidates for the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) by testing their understanding of key biological concepts and principles. Here is an overview of the JAMB Syllabus for Biology and some key points:

Overview of the JAMB Syllabus for Biology

The aim of the UTME 2024 Biology syllabus is to assess candidates’ knowledge of the diversity, interdependence, and unity of life, continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance, and evolution, as well as the application of biological principles to everyday life affecting living things, society, and the environment.

The syllabus covers various topics such as characteristics of living organisms, cell structure and functions, levels of organization (cell, tissue, organ, system, organism), classification of organisms (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia), energy flow in ecosystems, nutrient cycling in nature (carbon, water, nitrogen cycles), habitats (aquatic and terrestrial), biomes (tropical rainforest, savannas, deserts), adaptation for survival, population density, overcrowding, adaptation mechanisms for survival.

How Biology JAMB Syllabus Is Structured

The syllabus is divided into sections covering a wide range of topics including living cells and organization, continuity of life, concept living things, ecology and environment. Each section has specific objectives that candidates are expected to achieve after studying them.

Key Features of the Biology Syllabus:

  • Emphasis on understanding biological diversity and interdependence.
  • Focus on continuity of life through reorganization and evolution.
  • Application of biological principles to real-life scenarios affecting living things and the environment.
  • Coverage of various levels of biological organization from cells to ecosystems.
  • Examination of ecological concepts such as energy flow and nutrient cycling.

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Why Following the JAMB Syllabus for Biology Matters

1. Effective Exam Preparation: Adhering to the JAMB Syllabus for Biology is crucial for preparing well for the exam. By sticking to the guidelines in the syllabus, candidates can organize their study plan efficiently, making sure they cover all the necessary topics within the given time.

2. Streamlined Study Efforts: Following the syllabus helps candidates avoid unnecessary distractions, allowing them to concentrate on the specific content that will be assessed in the UTME. This focused approach enhances the quality of their preparation.

3. Blueprint for the Exam: The syllabus acts as a blueprint for the UTME. Questions in the exam directly come from the topics outlined in the syllabus. Therefore, a good grasp of the syllabus not only aids in preparation but also significantly increases the chances of success in the actual examination.

Key Points & Topics in the JAMB Syllabus for Biology

Section A Variety of Organisms

JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points

1. Living Organisms

a. Characteristics

Living organisms exhibit specific characteristics that distinguish them from non-living entities. These characteristics include:

Key Biological Concepts:

i. Cellular Organization: All living things are composed of cells, which are the basic structural and functional units of life.

ii. Metabolism: Living organisms undergo metabolic processes to acquire and utilize energy for various activities.

iii. Response to Stimuli: Organisms respond to external stimuli, demonstrating sensitivity to their environment.

iv. Growth and Development: Living organisms grow and develop over time, undergoing changes in size and complexity.

v. Reproduction: Living things reproduce, ensuring the continuity of their species.

vi. Homeostasis: Organisms maintain internal stability through regulatory mechanisms.

vii. Heredity: Living organisms pass on genetic information to their offspring, ensuring the transfer of traits from one generation to the next.

b. Cell Structure and Functions of Cell Components

Cells are the basic building blocks of life, and understanding their structure and functions is fundamental to biology.

i. Cell Membrane: Regulates the passage of substances in and out of the cell.

ii. Cytoplasm: Houses cellular organelles and is the site of various metabolic processes.

iii. Nucleus: This Contains genetic material (DNA) and also controls cell activities.

iv. Mitochondria: Produces energy through cellular respiration.

v. Endoplasmic Reticulum: Involved in protein and lipid synthesis.

vi. Golgi Apparatus: Packages and transports cellular products.

vii. Vacuoles: Store nutrients, waste products, and maintain turgor pressure.

c. Level of Organization

i. Cell (e.g., Amoeba, Cheek Cell): Cells are the basic units of life, exemplified by organisms like Amoeba and the cells found in the human cheek.

ii. Tissue (e.g., Epithelial Tissues): Cells of similar types come together to form tissues with specific functions, such as epithelial tissues.

iii. Organ (e.g., Leaf and Heart): Organs are composed of different tissues working together, for example, the leaf in plants and the heart in animals.

iv. Systems (e.g., Reproductive): Systems consist of multiple organs working in harmony to perform specific functions, like the reproductive system.

v. Organisms (e.g., Chlamydomonas): Complete living beings, such as Chlamydomonas, represent the highest level of biological organization.

2. Evolution among Various Organisms

Evolutionary processes have shaped the diversity of life on Earth. The JAMB syllabus outlines evolution among different groups:

a. Monera (Prokaryotes)

i. Examples: Bacteria and blue-green algae.

ii. Characterized by simple cell structures lacking a nucleus.

b. Protista (Protozoans and Protophyta)

i. Examples: Amoeba, Euglena, and Paramecium.

ii. A diverse group including unicellular organisms with eukaryotic cells.

c. Fungi

i. Examples: Mushroom and Rhizopus.

ii. Multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that absorb nutrients.

d. Plantae (Plants)

i. Thallophyta (e.g., Spirogyra)

ii. Bryophyta (e.g., Mosses and Liverworts)

iii. Pteridophyta (e.g., Ferns)

iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms)

v. Gymnosperms (e.g., Cycads and Conifers)

vi. Angiosperms (Monocots, e.g., Maize; Dicots, e.g., Water Leaf)

e. Animalia (Animals)

1. Invertebrates

i. Coelenterate (e.g., Hydra)

ii. Platyhelminthes (Flatworms, e.g., Taenia)

iii. Nematoda (Roundworms)

iv. Annelida (e.g., Earthworm)

v. Arthropoda (Insects, e.g. Cockroach, Mosquito, Housefly, Butterfly)

vi. Mollusca (e.g., Snails)

2. Multicellular Animals (Vertebrates)

i. Pisces (Cartilaginous and Bony Fish)

ii. Amphibia (e.g., Toads and Frogs)

iii. Reptilia (e.g., Lizards, Snakes, and Turtles)

iv. Aves (Birds)

v. Mammalia (Mammals)

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3. Structural/Behavioral Adaptations of Vertebrates to the Environment

Vertebrates exhibit adaptations to survive in their respective environments. The JAMB syllabus highlights these adaptations among bony fish, toads, lizards, birds, and small mammals:

1. Bony Fish: Adaptations include streamlined bodies for efficient swimming and gills for extracting oxygen from water.

2. Toads: Adaptations involve moist skin for respiration, powerful hind limbs for jumping, and toxin production for defence.

3. Lizards: Structural adaptations include scales for protection, and behavioural adaptations involve basking for temperature regulation.

4. Birds: Adaptations encompass wings for flight, beaks suited to their diet, and feathers for insulation.

5. Small Mammals: Adaptations include fur for insulation, burrowing for protection, and various dental structures based on their diet.

Understanding these adaptations provides insight into the interplay between organisms and their environments, showcasing the dynamic nature of biology.

Section B: Form And Functions

JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points
JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points
JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points
JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points

1. Internal Structure of Plants And Animals

a. Internal Structure of a Flowering Plant

i. Root: The root is a vital organ in a flowering plant, responsible for anchoring the plant in the soil and absorbing water and nutrients. Its internal structure includes:

1. Root Cap: Protective covering at the tip of the root that aids in penetration through the soil.

2. Meristem: Region of actively dividing cells, contributing to root growth.

3. Root Hairs: Extensions of root epidermal cells that increase the surface area for water absorption.

4. Xylem and Phloem: Vascular tissues responsible for the transport of water, nutrients, and sugars.

ii. Stem: The stem supports the plant, provides a pathway for the transport of water and nutrients and houses the leaves. Internal components of the stem consist of:

1. Epidermis: Outer layer protecting the stem.

2. Cortex: Tissue responsible for storage and support.

3. Vascular Bundles: Arrangements of xylem and phloem for fluid transport.

4. Cambium: Layer of actively dividing cells, contributing to secondary growth.

iii. Leaf: Leaves are the primary sites of photosynthesis, and their internal structure comprises:

1. Epidermis: Outer layer protecting the leaf.

2. Mesophyll: Tissue containing chloroplasts for photosynthesis.

3. Stomata: Pores allowing gas exchange.

4. Veins: Vascular structures transporting water and nutrients.

b. Internal Structure of a Mammal

Understanding the internal structure of mammals is crucial for comprehending their physiological functions.

1. Skin: The largest organ, providing protection and regulating temperature.

2. Muscles: Responsible for movement and support.

3. Bones: Framework providing structure and protection for internal organs.

4. Organs (Heart, Lungs, Liver, Kidneys): Internal organs with specific functions crucial for survival.

5. Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves): Controls bodily functions and responds to stimuli.

2. Nutrition

a. Modes of Nutrition

i. Autotrophic: Organisms produce their food through processes like photosynthesis.

ii. Heterotrophic: Organisms obtain nutrients by consuming other organisms.

b. Plant Nutrition

i. Photosynthesis: The process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy (glucose) using chlorophyll.

ii. Mineral Requirements (Macro and Micro-Nutrients): Plants require macro-nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) and micro-nutrients (e.g., iron, zinc) for growth and development.

c. Animal Nutrition

i. Classes of Food Substances: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts, and water.

ii. Food Tests: Techniques to identify the presence of substances (e.g., starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat).

iii. The Mammalian Tooth: Various types of teeth (incisors, canines, molars) with distinct structures and functions for food processing.

iv. Mammalian Alimentary Canal: The digestive tract comprising the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

v. Nutrition Process: Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.

3. Transport

a. Need for Transportation

Materials such as excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrients, water, and hormones need transportation within organisms.

b. Materials for Transportation

Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrients, water, and hormones.

c. Channels for Transportation

i. Mammalian Circulatory System: Heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries facilitating blood circulation.

ii. Plant Vascular System: Phloem and xylem responsible for the transport of sap.

d. Media and Processes of Mechanism for Transportation

Various mediums (blood, sap) and processes (diffusion, osmosis, active transport) contribute to the efficient transportation of materials.

4. Respiration

a. Respiratory Organs and Surfaces

Structures involved in the exchange of gases, such as lungs in mammals and stomata in plants.

b. The Mechanism of Gaseous Exchange

i. Plants: Gases exchanged through stomata during photosynthesis and respiration.

ii. Mammals: Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the lungs during breathing.

c. Aerobic Respiration

Cellular process utilizing oxygen to generate energy from glucose.

d. Anaerobic Respiration

Cellular process occurring in the absence of oxygen, producing energy and lactic acid in mammals.

5. Excretion

a. Types of Excretory Structures

Understanding various excretory structures provides insight into how organisms eliminate waste products:

i. Contractile Vacuole: Found in protozoans, regulates water content and expels excess water.

ii. Flame Cell: Present in flatworms (Platyhelminthes), responsible for osmoregulation and waste elimination.

iii. Nephridium: Excretory organ in annelids, removing metabolic wastes from the coelomic fluid.

iv. Malpighian Tubule: Insects use these tubules to filter waste from hemolymph.

v. Kidney: Major excretory organ in vertebrates, regulating water and electrolyte balance.

vi. Stoma: Tiny openings in plant leaves allowing gas exchange and water vapor release.

vii. Lenticel: Corky, porous tissue in plants facilitating gas exchange in woody stems.

b. Excretory Mechanisms

i. Kidneys: (Mammalian Kidneys): Filter blood, reabsorb useful substances, and excrete waste in the form of urine.

ii. Lungs: (Respiratory Excretion): Elimination of carbon dioxide during breathing.

iii. Skin: (Sweat Glands): Release perspiration, aiding in temperature regulation and waste removal.

c. Excretory Products of Plants

i. Oxygen: Released during photosynthesis.

ii. Carbon Dioxide: Produced during cellular respiration.

iii. Water Vapor: Released through transpiration.

iv. Waste Products: Various metabolic byproducts are eliminated through specialized structures.

6. Support and Movement

a. Tropic, Tactic, Nastic, and Sleep Movements in Plants

i. Tropic Movements: Directional growth responses to external stimuli (e.g., phototropism toward light).

ii. Tactic Movements: Movement of an entire organism or part in response to stimuli (e.g., chemotaxis in plant roots).

iii. Nastic Movements: Non-directional responses to stimuli, independent of the direction of the stimulus (e.g., thigmonasty in touch-sensitive plants).

iv. Sleep Movements: Reversible changes in plant position, occur daily (e.g., nyctinasty in flowers).

b. Supporting Tissues in Animals

i. Cartilage: Provides flexibility and support in structures like the nose and ears.

ii. Bone: Rigid framework supporting the body and protecting internal organs.

c. Types and Functions of the Skeleton

i. Exoskeleton: External hard covering providing support and protection (e.g., arthropods).

ii. Endoskeleton: Internal bony framework supporting vertebrate animals.

iii. Functions of the Skeleton in Animals: Maintaining the body’s structure, Shielding internal organs from damage, Serving as attachment points for muscles, and facilitating locomotion.

7. Reproduction

a. Asexual Reproduction

i. Fission as in Paramecium: Division of a single-celled organism into two identical daughter cells.

ii. Budding as in Yeast: Outgrowth of a new organism from the parent organism.

iii. Natural Vegetative Propagation: Formation of new plants from vegetative structures like runners, bulbs, or tubers.

iv. Artificial Vegetative Propagation: Induced propagation using human intervention (e.g., cutting and grafting).

b. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

i. Floral Parts and Their Functions: Sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels contribute to reproduction.

ii. Pollination and Fertilization: Transfer of pollen to the stigma followed by the fusion of male and female gametes.

iii. Products of Sexual Reproduction: Seeds and fruits resulting from fertilization.

c. Reproduction in Mammals

i. Structures and Functions of the Male and Female Reproductive Organs: Male: Testes produce sperm, female: Ovaries produce eggs.

ii. Fertilization and Development: Fusion of gametes (sperm and egg) leading to embryo development in the uterus.

8. Growth

a. Meaning of Growth

Growth refers to the process of increasing in size, complexity, and maturity. It is a fundamental characteristic of living organisms and is often a result of cell division, cell enlargement, and cell differentiation. Growth is crucial for the development and survival of organisms, allowing them to adapt to their environment and fulfil their life cycles.

b. Germination of Seeds and Conditions Necessary for Germination of Seed

Germination is how a seed turns into a new plant. To make this happen successfully, there are certain things the seed needs:

i. Water: Adequate moisture is crucial to initiate metabolic processes within the seed.

ii. Temperature: Optimal temperature ranges specific to each plant species stimulate enzyme activity for germination.

iii. Oxygen: Seeds require oxygen for cellular respiration during germination.

iv. Light: Some seeds require light for germination, while others thrive in darkness.

v. Soil: A suitable substrate with nutrients supports seedling growth.

9. Coordination and Control

a. Nervous Coordination

i. Components, Structure, and Functions of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Brain: The central processing unit, responsible for integrating sensory information, initiating responses, and controlling bodily functions.

Spinal Cord: Conducts nerve impulses between the brain and the rest of the body.

ii. Components and Functions of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Nerves: Transmit signals between the CNS and peripheral organs.

Sensory Receptors: Detect stimuli from the environment.

Motor Neurons: Control muscle movements and glandular activities.

iii. Mechanism of Transmission of Impulses

Neurons transmit electrical impulses through synapses, allowing communication between nerve cells.

iv. Reflex Action

Involuntary, rapid responses to stimuli, mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.

b. The Sense Organs

i. Skin (Tactile): Detects touch, pressure, and temperature changes.

ii. Nose (Olfactory): Responsible for the sense of smell.

iii. Tongue (Taste): Detects different tastes through taste buds.

iv. Eye (Sight): Processes visual information, enabling sight.

v. Ear (Auditory): Responsible for hearing and maintaining balance.

c. Hormonal Control

1. Animal Hormonal System

i. Pituitary Gland: Regulates other endocrine glands and produces growth hormone.

ii. Thyroid Gland: Controls metabolism and energy balance.

iii. Parathyroid Gland: Regulates calcium levels in the blood.

iv. Adrenal Gland: Produces hormones that respond to stress.

v. Pancreas: Regulates blood sugar levels with insulin and glucagon.

vi. Gonads: Testes in males and ovaries in females control reproductive functions.

2. Plant Hormones (Phytohormones)

i. Auxins: Control cell elongation and apical dominance.

ii. Gibberellins: Stimulate stem elongation and seed germination.

iii. Cytokinins: Regulate cell division and differentiation.

iv. Abscisic Acid (ABA): Controls seed dormancy and stress responses.

v. Ethylene: Influences fruit ripening and abscission.

d. Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the physiological and biochemical processes that maintain internal stability within an organism despite external fluctuations. Coordination and control mechanisms, both nervous and hormonal, play a crucial role in achieving and sustaining homeostasis.

i. Body Temperature Regulation: Maintained within a narrow range for optimal enzyme function.

ii. Salt and Water Regulation: Controlled by the kidneys to maintain proper electrolyte balance and prevent dehydration.

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Section C: Ecology

JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points
JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points
JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points

1. Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms

i. Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factors encompass non-living elements that influence the distribution of organisms:

i. Temperature: Determines the type of organisms that can thrive in an environment.

ii. Light: Influences photosynthesis and plant growth.

iii. Water: Availability and type (freshwater, saltwater) affect aquatic organisms.

iv. Soil: Composition and structure impact plant distribution.

v. Topography: The physical features of the landscape, such as mountains and valleys, affect organism distribution.

ii. Biotic Factors

Biotic factors involve living components of an ecosystem:

i. Predation: The presence of predators influences prey populations.

ii. Competition: Organisms compete for resources like food and habitat.

iii. Symbiosis: Interactions such as mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism affect distribution.

2. Symbiotic Interactions of Plants and Animals

(a) Food Chains, Food Webs, and Trophic Levels

i. Food Chains: Sequential representation of who eats whom in an ecosystem.

ii. Food Webs: Interconnected food chains, illustrating complex relationships.

iii. Trophic Levels: Hierarchical levels in a food chain, including producers, consumers, and decomposers.

(b) Energy Flow in the Ecosystem

i. Energy Pyramids: Illustrate the flow of energy through trophic levels.

(c) Nutrient Cycling in Nature

i. Carbon Cycle: Involves the movement of carbon through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

ii. Water Cycle: Describes the continuous circulation of water through evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and transpiration.

iii. Nitrogen Cycle: Encompasses nitrogen’s conversion between organic and inorganic forms through processes like nitrogen fixation and denitrification.

3. Natural Habitats

(a) Aquatic

i. Ponds, Streams, Lakes: Freshwater habitats supporting diverse aquatic life.

ii. Seashores and Mangrove Swamps: Coastal ecosystems with unique flora and fauna adapted to saltwater conditions.

(b) Terrestrial/Arboreal

i. Tree tops of Oil Palm: Canopy habitats supporting various species.

ii. Abandoned Farmland or Dry Grassy Field: Disturbed terrestrial habitats undergoing ecological succession.

iii. Burrow or Hole: Underground habitats providing shelter.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes

i. Tropical Rainforest: Diverse biome characterized by high rainfall and rich biodiversity.

ii. Guinea Savanna (Southern and Northern): Transition zone between forest and savanna, featuring a mix of tree and grass species.

iii. Sudan Savanna: Savanna biome with scattered trees and grasses adapted to drier conditions.

iv. Desert: Arid biome with low precipitation, sparse vegetation, and extreme temperatures.

v. Highlands of Montane Forests and Grasslands of Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau: Unique high-altitude ecosystems with distinct flora and fauna.

5. The Ecology of Populations

(a) Population Density and Overcrowding

Population density is the number of individuals per unit area, while overcrowding can lead to competition and stress.

(b) Factors Affecting Population Sizes

i. Biotic: Food availability, pest presence, disease prevalence, predation, competition, and reproductive ability.

ii. Abiotic: Temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.

c. Ecological Succession

i. Primary Succession: Establishment of life in a previously uninhabited area.

ii. Secondary Succession: Renewal of a disturbed ecosystem after a disturbance like fire or logging.

6. Soil

a) The Characteristics of Different Types of Soil (Sandy, Loamy, Clayey)

i. Soil Structure: Arrangement of soil particles affecting water drainage and root penetration.

ii. Porosity, Capillarity, and Humus Content: Factors influencing water retention, movement, and organic matter in soil.

iii. Components of the Soil: Inorganic (minerals), organic (decayed plant and animal matter), and soil organisms.

b) Soil Fertility

i. Loss of Soil Fertility: Depletion of nutrients due to agricultural practices, erosion, and overuse.

ii. Renewal and Maintenance of Soil Fertility: Practices like crop rotation, organic farming, and adding fertilizers.

7. Humans and Environment

(a) Diseases

(i) Common and Endemic Diseases: Diseases prevalent in specific regions.

(ii) Easily Transmissible Diseases and Disease Syndrome: Examples include poliomyelitis, cholera, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases.

b. Pollution and Its Control

(i) Sources, Types, Effects, and Methods of Control: Addressing air, water, and soil pollution through regulations, technological solutions, and public awareness.

(ii) Sanitation and Sewage: Proper waste disposal and sewage treatment to prevent environmental contamination.

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources

Sustainable practices to preserve biodiversity, protect ecosystems, and manage resources responsibly.

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Section D: Heredity And Variations

JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points
JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points

1. Variation in Population

a. Morphological Variations in Physical Appearance

i. Size (Height, Weight): Morphological differences in height and weight among individuals in a population.

ii. Colour (Skin, Eye, Hair, Coat of Animals, Scales, and Feathers): Variations in pigmentation and colouration in different body parts.

iii. Fingerprints: Unique patterns formed by ridges on fingertips, used for identification.

b. Physiological Variation

i. Ability to Roll Tongue: Genetic trait influencing the ability to roll the tongue.

ii. Ability to Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC): Genetic variation affecting the perception of bitterness.

iii. Blood Groups: ABO blood group system and Rh factor as examples of physiological variations.

b. Application of Discontinuous Variation in Crime Detection, Blood Transfusion, and Determination of Paternity

i. Crime Detection: Matching fingerprints, DNA analysis, and other morphological or physiological traits for identification.

ii. Blood Transfusion: Matching blood types to prevent immune reactions.

iii. Determination of Paternity: Analyzing genetic markers to establish biological parentage.

2. Heredity

a) Inheritance of Characters in Organisms

i) Heritable and Non-Heritable Characters

i. Heritable: Traits passed from one generation to the next through genetic material.

ii. Non-Heritable: Traits influenced by environmental factors.

b) Chromosomes – The Basis of Heredity

i. Structure: Chromosomes are thread-like structures in the cell nucleus, consisting of DNA and proteins.

ii. Process of Transmission of Hereditary Characters from Parents to Offspring: The mechanism of genetic inheritance through the combination of genes from both parents during reproduction.

c) Probability in Genetics and Sex Determination

Probability theory is applied to predict the likelihood of specific genetic outcomes in offspring.

d) Application of the Principles of Heredity in:

i. Agriculture: Selective breeding to enhance desirable traits in crops and livestock.

ii. Medicine: Understanding genetic disorders and developing treatments based on genetic information.

e) Sex-Linked Characters (e.g., Baldness, Haemophilia, Colour Blindness, etc.)

Traits carried on sex chromosomes, such as the X or Y chromosome, influence the expression of certain characteristics.

Understanding the principles of heredity is crucial for fields like agriculture and medicine, where genetic information is applied to enhance desirable traits and address genetic disorders. The study of variation in populations provides insights into the diversity of morphological and physiological traits and their applications in areas like crime detection and paternity determination.

Section E: Evolution

JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points

1. Adaptation for Survival

a) Factors that Bring About Competition

i. Limited Resources: Availability of limited resources such as food, water, and shelter.

ii. Environmental Pressures: External factors like climate, predators, and disease.

b) Intra and Inter-specific Competition

i. Intraspecific Competition: Competition between individuals of the same species for resources.

ii. Interspecific Competition: Competition between individuals of different species for shared resources.

c) Relationship Between Competition and Succession

i. Competition and Succession: Intense competition can influence the outcome of ecological succession, determining which species dominate in an ecosystem.

2) Structural Adaptations in Organisms

i. Structural Adaptations: Physical features that enhance an organism’s survival and reproduction.

3) Adaptive Colouration and Its Functions

i. Adaptive Colouration: The ability of an organism to change colour or possess specific colours for survival purposes.

4) Behavioural Adaptations in Social Animals

i. Behavioural Adaptations: Actions and activities that contribute to an organism’s survival and reproduction.

5) Theories of Evolution

i) Lamarck’s Theory

i. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution: The idea that acquired traits during an organism’s lifetime are passed on to offspring.

ii) Darwin’s Theory

i. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: The concept that species evolve through the differential survival and reproduction of organisms with advantageous traits.

6) Evidence of Evolution

i. Fossil Record: The chronological record of the remains of past life, showcasing the evolution of species over time.

ii. Comparative Anatomy: Similarities and differences in the structure of organisms, revealing evolutionary relationships.

iii. Comparative Embryology: Study of the development of embryos, highlighting shared ancestry.

iv. Molecular Evidence: Examination of genetic material, such as DNA and proteins, to reveal evolutionary connections.

v. Biogeography: Distribution of species on Earth, providing insights into their evolutionary history.

Understanding adaptation, competition, and evolution is fundamental in comprehending how organisms survive, thrive, and change over time.

Theories of evolution, such as Lamarck’s and Darwin’s, offer different perspectives on the mechanisms driving the diversity of life. Evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, embryology, molecular biology, and biogeography provides a robust foundation for the understanding of the evolutionary processes that have shaped the living world.

How to Study the Key Topics in the JAMB Syllabus for Biology

Effective Study Techniques

1. Active Learning: Engage actively with the material by summarizing key points, teaching concepts to others, and participating in discussions, Use flashcards for quick recall of important terms and concepts.

2. Practice with Past Questions: Familiarize yourself with the exam pattern by solving past JAMB Biology questions, Analyze your mistakes and focus on areas that need improvement.

3. Concept Mapping: Create visual representations of key topics to understand the relationships between different concepts, Use mind maps to organize information for better retention.

4. Group Study: Join study groups to discuss topics, share insights, and learn from others, Teaching and explaining concepts to peers can reinforce your understanding.

5. Utilize Technology: Explore educational apps, online resources, and interactive simulations to enhance your learning experience, Leverage video tutorials for complex topics.

Recommended Study Resources For Jamb Biology Syllabus

1. Official JAMB Syllabus: Get and thoroughly go through the official JAMB Syllabus for Biology to understand the scope of the exam.

2. Textbooks: Refer to standard Biology textbooks recommended by JAMB for in-depth coverage of key topics, Make use of reference books for additional insights.

3. Online Platforms: Access reputable educational websites and online platforms that provide study materials, practice questions, and video lessons.

4. Educational Apps: Get biology-focused educational apps for interactive learning and quizzes, Many apps offer gamified learning experiences.

5. JAMB CBT Software: Practice using JAMB Computer-Based Test (CBT) software to simulate the exam environment, Familiarize yourself with the interface and navigation.

Time Management Tips

1. Create a Study Schedule: Develop a realistic and structured study timetable based on the time available before the exam, Allocate specific time slots for each key topic.

2. Prioritize Weak Areas: Identify your weaker areas and allocate more time to study and practice questions in those topics.

3. Take Breaks: Incorporate short breaks during study sessions to maintain focus and prevent burnout. Use techniques like the Pomodoro method for effective time management.

4. Review Regularly: Schedule regular review sessions to reinforce what you’ve learned and ensure long-term retention.

5. Simulate Exam Conditions: Practice under exam conditions by taking timed mock tests. This helps improve your speed and stamina during the actual exam.

6. Stay Healthy: Prioritize a healthy lifestyle with adequate sleep, nutritious meals, and regular exercise. Physical well-being contributes to better concentration and cognitive function.

By adopting effective study techniques, utilizing recommended resources, and managing your time wisely, you can enhance your preparation for the JAMB Biology exam.

Consistency, active engagement, and strategic planning are key elements to succeed in mastering the key topics outlined in the JAMB Syllabus for Biology.

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How to Achieve Academic Success in JAMB Biology Syllabus

1. Scoring High in Exams

Mastering the key topics in the JAMB Biology syllabus provides a solid foundation for answering questions accurately during the exam.

Familiarity with the topics ensures efficient time management, allowing you to address all questions within the allotted time.

2. Increased Confidence

A thorough understanding of the key topics boosts your confidence, reducing anxiety during the exam.

Confidence contributes to clear thinking and effective problem-solving.

3. Strategic Exam Approach

Mastery of the syllabus enables you to strategically approach the exam, identifying high-weightage topics and allocating time accordingly.

You can focus on areas where you are most likely to earn maximum points.

4. Better Post-Exam Opportunities

High scores in JAMB Biology open up opportunities for admission into desired academic programs.

A strong performance sets the stage for future academic success.

How To Gain a Deep Understanding of Biology

1. Holistic Knowledge

Mastering key topics allows for a comprehensive understanding of biological concepts.

You can connect various topics, seeing the broader picture of how living organisms function.

2. Application in Real-Life Situations

A deep understanding of biology facilitates the application of concepts to real-life situations.

You can appreciate the relevance of biological principles in everyday scenarios.

3. Preparation for Advanced Studies

In-depth knowledge of key topics prepares you for more advanced studies in biology.

It lays a strong foundation for pursuing higher education and specialized fields within biology.

4. Research and Innovation

Deep understanding fosters curiosity, encouraging you to explore areas of interest within biology.

It sets the stage for potential contributions to research and innovation in the field.

JAMB Syllabus for Biology & Key Points

1. Comprehensive Certificate Biology for Senior Secondary Schools

Authors: Ambuna, A. Egunyomi, A., and Osakwe, J.

Publisher: University Press Limited

Year: 1990

2. Exam Focus: Biology For WASSCE and JME 2nd Edition

Authors: Egunyomi A. Bob Manuel, Abdullahi B.A., and Oyetola O.A.

Publisher: University Press Limited

Year: 1988

3. Success in Biology

Authors: MacQueen J. and Murray J.

Publisher: John Murray

Year: 1978

4. Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1 -3

Authors: Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A., and Aina J.O.

Publisher: Longman

Year: 2001

5. Essentials of Biology

Author: Odunfa, S.A.

Publisher: Heinemann

Year: 2001

6. Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3

Authors: Oguniyi, M.B. Adebisi A.A., and Okojie J.A.

Publisher: Macmillan

Year: 2000

7. Modern Biology, SS Science Series

Author: Ramalingam, S.T.

Publisher: AFP

Year: 2005

8. Functional Approach in Biology

Author: Roberts, A.B.U.

Year: 1993

9. Modern Biology for Secondary Schools. Revised Edition

Authors: Sorojini, T.L., Sheila, P., and Charles, T.P.

Publisher: FEP

Year: 2000

10. Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition

Publisher: STAN

Year: 2004

Location: Ibadan: Heinemann

11. Biology for West African Schools

Authors: Stone, R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C.

Publisher: Longman

Year: 1982

12. Handbook of Practical Biology 2nd Edition

Author: Usua, E.J.

Publisher: University Press Limited

Year: 1997

These recommended textbooks cover a wide range of topics and provide comprehensive insights into JAMB Biology syllabus. Consider using a combination of these resources to ensure a well-rounded preparation for the exam.


It’s really important to understand the main things in the JAMB Biology syllabus. This isn’t just for doing well in the exam, but it also helps you get what biology is about and makes your thinking and problem-solving skills better.

The books and study tips we talked about before are helpful tools to do great in the subject.

Doing well in the JAMB Biology exam doesn’t just mean good grades, it can lead to more chances for education and set the groundwork for future work in biology.

It’s not just about test scores; it helps you get what the subject is about and gets you ready for more advanced studies and using biology in real-life situations.

When you’re learning the important stuff in the JAMB Biology syllabus, keep in mind how crucial it is to be actively involved, use smart study methods, and manage your time well.

Make the most of the suggested textbooks and resources to boost your understanding. Apply critical thinking and analytical skills to do well not just in exams, but also in your studies and future work.

When you tackle biology studies with a proactive and thorough approach, you’re not just getting ready for a test. You’re also building skills and knowledge that will be useful in your overall academic and professional path.

Good luck in your preparation! I hope your mastery of the important topics helps you succeed in the JAMB Biology exam and in whatever comes next for you.

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